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Principal Investigator: Marni Sommer, Columbia University


The project sought to better understand the ways in which humanitarian emergency organisations respond to adolescent girls’ and women’s menstrual hygiene management (MHM) needs in humanitarian emergency contexts, through key informant interviews and qualitative assessments with women, girls and staff in two different emergency contexts (in Myanmar and Lebanon). It aimed to develop a toolkit for use in emergencies that could help address menstrual hygiene needs, followed by an evaluation of the pilot toolkit in a refugee camp setting in Tanzania. The study wanted to assess the extent to which the toolkit was implemented, the factors that supported and prevented its uptake, its influence on the provision of MHM programming, and how the toolkit guidance was modified during implementation.

Research Snapshot

Mainstreaming is key for integrating menstrual hygiene management (MHM) effectively into emergency response


Outcomes Achieved

The research and toolkit developed was undertaken as planned. A broad range of focus group discussions and key informant interviews, including with women and girls in Myanmar and Lebanon, helped to inform the development of a comprehensive Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) toolkit. This was piloted in Tanzania using a process and endline evaluation to establish its effectiveness and use in an emergency setting. There was strong engagement of NGOs and UN agencies in the development of the final version of the toolkit, which has been published in open access format and widely disseminated within the sector.

Key findings:

  • There was broad consensus on the value of the toolkit and the training activities for improving basic MHM understanding for an MHM response. The toolkit trainings were also important for convincing other sectoral actors, outside of the WASH sector, that they had a role to play in supporting MHM.
  • Specific gaps in the tool-kit content were identified, for example the need for more guidance on vulnerable populations and links with the shelter sector. The indicators also needed to be simplified.
  • There are three essential components for an MHM response – to ensure girls and women have access to: a) materials and supplies; b) information (including menstrual hygiene promotion and health education), and c) MHM supportive facilities (toilets and washing spaces).
  • Consultation with girls and women remains the single most effective tool for ensuring that each of these three components are effectively and appropriately addressed.
  • Undertaking direct qualitative consultations with women and girls about their experiences with menstruation was very successful and should be more routinely conducted in emergency contexts.

 Key outputs:

  • Menstrual Hygiene Management in Emergencies tool-kit, mini-guide and infographics (available in English, French and Arabic)
  • Tool-kit launch events in Bangladesh, Kenya, UK and USA
  • Webinars conducted with UNICEF and UNHCR global teams and WASH staff
  • Three peer-reviewed articles
  • Findings presented at Emergency Environmental Health Forum, Water and Health Conference (UNC), amongst others.

Next Steps

Further advocacy for the uptake of the toolkit is planned.  The toolkit is anticipated to be listed as a key reference in the revised Sphere Humanitarian Guidelines which will be published in autumn 2018. The toolkit will require revisions as further evidence is generated about effective MHM strategies in emergency contexts.


Peer Reviewed Water, sanitation & hygiene

Pilot testing and evaluation of a toolkit formenstrual hygiene management in emergencies in three refugee camps in Northwest Tanzania

Tool Sexual and Reproductive Health

Menstrual Hygiene Management in Emergencies Toolkit

Peer Reviewed Sexual and Reproductive Health

Understanding the menstrual hygiene management challenges facing displaced girls and women: findings from qualitative assessments in Myanmar and Lebanon

Peer Reviewed

What is the scope for addressing menstrual hygiene management in complex humanitarian emergencies? A global review

Latest Updates

The need for expanding the scope for addressing the menstrual hygiene needs of girls and women during emergencies

Oct 2017

Menstruation does not know you are displaced or that you are traveling. It will just come; so it came while we were on the road [and] for others it came…


Related News


Global Survey on Menstrual Hygiene Management


Menstrual Hygiene Management in Emergencies Toolkit


What next for menstrual hygiene in emergencies – a call for further action

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