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3 Methods

3.1 Systematic literature review on health topics

3.1.4 Inclusion/exclusion criteria

The following seven key inclusion criteria were used in this review:

  • Types of studies: Primary quantitative research studies. Study designs including randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, controlled interrupted time series studies, economic studies (cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, cost-benefit analysis, economic modelling) of public health which the outcome is measured before and after the intervention or an intervention is studied against another intervention with baseline or control group.
  • Populations of interest: Populations affected by humanitarian crises and receiving humanitarian assistance in low and middle-income countries (based upon World Bank country classification).
  • Health outcomes and outputs of interest: Primary outcomes (e.g. morbidity, mortality, vaccination status), secondary outcomes (e.g. contraceptive prevalence rate), and primary outputs (e.g. malaria bed nets distributed, nutrition supplements provided etc).
  • Crisis Phase: Studies that occur in humanitarian crises including those that evaluate: i) the impact of preparedness and resilience on public health outcomes during a humanitarian crises and/or ii) studies that evaluate the impact of public health interventions during the acute, chronic, or early recovery phases of humanitarian crises.
  • Data type(s): Must include primary data.
  • Date of intervention and publication: January 1, 1980 – April 30, 2013.
  • Publication language:  English, French.

The following criteria were used to exclude studies from this review:

  • Studies with no specific health intervention and no outcomes or outputs (i.e., excluding studies that examine only health needs, prevalence, health risk-factors, co-ordination).
  • Studies that examine preparedness and resilience not linked to health outcomes in humanitarian crises (e.g. studies on housing fortification before flooding).
  • Review papers; only references listed in review papers were screened to find more primary data sources.
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