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Cholera is a severe, acute, dehydrating diarrhea that results from infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Water supply and sanitation infrastructure has eliminated cholera in many countries. However, in 2016, 38 countries reported cholera. There are an estimated 1.4-4 million cases of cholera a year, with 21,000-143,000 fatalities. Cholera is transmitted by contaminated water and food. Bucket chlorination is one of a suite of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions implemented to control cholera, and is intended to interrupt transmission of cholera via water. Due to contamination of surfaces in the household with the bacteria, household contacts of confirmed cholera patients are much more likely than community members to contract cholera. Household disinfection is another WASH intervention implemented to control cholera outbreaks, and is intended to prevent transmission from a cholera patient to household contacts and neighbors.

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