A global organisation that finds solutions to complex humanitarian problems through research and innovation..
Our purpose is clear: we work in partnership with a global community of humanitarian actors, researchers and innovators to improve the quality of humanitarian action and deliver better outcomes for people affected by crises.
We empower the humanitarian community. Find out how we can support you...

Principal Investigators: Stefan Flasche, LSHTM & Francesco Checci, LSHTM

Research Snapshot: Effective pneumococcal vaccination campaigns in displaced populations

Generating evidence on optimal vaccination strategies to protect children in humanitarian settings against pneumococcal pneumonia.

View Snapshot


The study aims to identify effective and cost-effective pneumococcal vaccination strategies for crisis affected
populations. Specifically, the research will:

  1. identify optimal mass pneumococcal vaccination strategies that reduce disease burden in displacement, rural and urban crisis scenarios;
  2. estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of these strategies; and
  3. quantify the global theoretical pneumococcal vaccine need for humanitarian uses

Expected Outcomes

The project is expected to have the following main outputs:

  1. A quantification of the absolute and relative/differential effect of PCV vaccination strategies in terms of cases averted, for each vaccination strategy considered, and in three model scenarios that we believe represent the main typologies of crisis that populations with high pneumococcal burden experience;
  2. A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative vaccination strategies, based on the model outputs as in (1);
  3. Recommendations on optimal PCV vaccination strategies in a discrete set of generic crisis typologies, based on (1) and (2);
  4. A calculation of the annual doses of PCV required to best reduce burden of disease across current crises, based on (3), and of the approximate burden of pneumococcal disease avertable through vaccination or other interventions in crises.

Additional outputs will include:

  • A unique quantification of social mixing and nasopharyngeal carriage patterns in a displaced, overcrowded population, providing a basis for further work on disease control strategies in such populations, including for other pathogens;
  • A readily transferable, general model to estimate pneumococcal carriage, disease burden and the potential benefit of vaccination in other crisis settings, helping to tailor strategies and prioritisation decisions to specific contexts.


Research Snapshot Communicable disease (including infectious disease outbreaks)

Research Snapshot: Effective pneumococcal vaccination campaigns in displaced populations

Peer Reviewed Disease (Communicable & Non-communicable)

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use during humanitarian crises

Article Disease (Communicable & Non-communicable)

Social contacts and other risk factors for respiratory infections among internally displaced people in Somaliland

Latest Updates

Presentation at MSF Scientific Days

7 Jun 2023

Kevin van Zandvoort discusses modelling the potential impact of pneumococcal vaccination strategies in humanitarian crises at the 2023 MSF Scientific Days.


Interview with Kevin: World Pneumonia Day 2022

12 Nov 2022

In this interview published to mark World Pneumonia Day, Kevin van Zandvoort discusses how rethinking pneumonia vaccination strategies can save lives.


Study receives Gates Foundation funding

Oct 2021

The research team has received funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to implement and evaluate the strategy identified as most effective by this R2HC funded study, to immunise internally displaced persons in humanitarian crisis settings.


World Pneumonia Day Campaign

12 Nov 2019

Kevin van Zandvoort participated in a televised campaign to raise local awareness for pneumonia and pneumococcal disease during world pneumonia day.



Subscribe to our newsletters....

Elrha © 2018 - 2023 Elrha is a registered charity in England and Wales (1177110). KEEP IN TOUCH Want to stay up to date with our latest updates? Sign up to our newsletters
Elrha Please upgrade your browser

You are seeing this because you are using a browser that is not supported. The Elrha website is built using modern technology and standards. We recommend upgrading your browser with one of the following to properly view our website:

Windows Mac

Please note that this is not an exhaustive list of browsers. We also do not intend to recommend a particular manufacturer's browser over another's; only to suggest upgrading to a browser version that is compliant with current standards to give you the best and most secure browsing experience.